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Odinga was ready to accept international mediation from the outset.President Kibaki was reluctant, and Kufuor actually had to trick Kibaki into accepting any mediation at all. The following morning the ambassador of Ghana in Nairobi delivered formal letters to Kibaki and Odinga from Kufuor on the appointment of the Panel of Eminent Personalities led by Annan to mediate in the crisis.A special support trust fund was established by UNDP/-Kenya to receive contributions, as the whole exercise was an extra-budgetary exercise and could not be financed from regular sources.A dozen of UN staffers were permanently assigned to the mediation, and the UN provided information technology, conference services, etc.He was succeeded in a reasonably free and fair election by Mwai Kibaki, at the head of a broad coalition, though himself Agikuyu.Each of these elections was surrounded by sporadic inter-communal violence as well as legally dubious or de facto reallocations of valuable land, and each produced increasing numbers of internally displaced persons (IDPs), who had generally not been resettled by the time the next round of violence and displacement began.

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However, as subsequent commentators have noted, the political problems and ethnic divisions that eventually led to conflict had been present and festering, unaddressed, since Kenya’s independence in 1963.

This approach created a sense of domestic ownership over the process, raised issues important to citizens that the parties might otherwise have overlooked, and created cross-pressure on Kibaki and Odinga from within their far-from-united constituencies.

[xxi] Consequently, public support for the process remained high.

Indeed, the choice of Annan was partly in order to be able to unify international efforts in this manner.

As a result, the Annan effort received full-throated public support from virtual all major international actors, greatly increasing the “muscle” of the mediation team.[xv] The day before, the AU Peace and Security Council had issued a Communiqué supporting Annan’s effort.[xvi] A week thereafter, during a fortuitously-timed meeting of the AU Assembly, the AU would release its only Resolution[xvii] on the issue, which called for the parties to commit themselves to the Annan process and dialogue generally.

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