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Wattenbach, a leading authority on the subject, says: "More precious manuscripts, in proportion to the existing supply, have been destroyed by the learned experimenters of our time than by the much abused monks of old." (Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-19; 6:4-5). It agrees at times with the Septuagint against the Massorah. Test.) retained the numeration of Kennicott and added a list of 479 manuscripts, all his own personal property, of which unfortunately 17 had already received numbers from Kennicott.
The writing is without vowels and seems palæographically to be not later than the second century. Another pre-Massoretic text is the Samaritan Pentateuch. 89-144, other manuscripts of English-speaking countries; nos. 255-300, printed texts and various manuscripts; nos. De Rossi later added four supplementary lists of 110, 52, 37, and 76 manuscripts.
These fragments, obtained from a Cairo (a box for wornout or cast-off manuscripts), belong to the tenth or eleventh century of our era. 4445" in the British Museum, which Ginsburg (Introduction, p. A few of the chief manuscripts are more exactly collated and compared in the critical editions of the Massoretic text which were done by S. Petersburg, which Firkowitsch collated at Tschufut-Kale ("Jews' Rock") in the Crimea (see Strack, "Die biblischen und massoretischen Handschriften zü Tschufut-Kale" in "Zeits. All Massoretic manuscripts bring us back to one editor that of a textual tradition which probably began in the second century and became more and more minute until every jot and tittle of the text was almost absolutely fixed and sacred. Aqiba seems to have been the head of this Jewish school of the second century.
They provide us with more than a half of Ecclesiasticus and duplicate certain portions of the book. Petersburg Pentateuch, he rejects as utterly impossible (see Studia Biblica, III, 22). Petersburg Bible, written by Samuel ben Jacob and dated A. Unprecedented means were taken to keep the text fixed.
Such chemical reagents are an infusion of nutgalls, Gioberti's tincture and hydrosulphuret of ammonia; all do harm to the manuscript.This lack of variants in Massoretic manuscripts leaves us hopeless of reaching back to the original Hebrew text save through the versions.Kittel in his splendid Hebrew text gives such variants as the versions suggest.Pliny, "Historia Naturalis", xiii, 11), and during the time of the Apostles (2 Timothy ).In the third century, it began, outside of Egypt, to supersede papyrus; in the early part of the fourth century vellum and the codex, or book-form, gained complete victory over papyrus and the roll-form.